World of Reptiles and friends

Slither into the World of Reptiles and Friends to meet animals big and small, scaly slimy and even furry. From seahorses to venomous snakes, vibrant frogs to multi-colored monitors, there’s an animal to suit everyone’s fancy. Watch lizards crawl, monkeys climb, snakes sense with their tongues and even immerse yourself in the floor-to-ceiling crocodile marsh!

African Bullfrog

Scientific Name: Pyxicephalus adspersus

Found In: Southern Africa/Drier savannas

Size: Adult males can reach 9 inches in length and weigh up to 2 pounds while females can reach 4 inches in length and weigh up to 1 pound

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of any animal it can overpower, including frogs, reptiles, small mammals, small birds, and other African bullfrogs.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Harvesting for local consumption, loss of habitat, and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species.

Facts: The African bullfrog spends most of the year buried underground in a cocoon made from its skin cells until the start of a rain when they come out to breed.

Alligator Snapping Turtle

Scientific Name: Macrochelys temminckii

Found In: United States/Reservoirs and rivers

Size: Adults average 2.5 to 3 feet in length and weigh 150 to 170 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of fish and some small mammals.

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss, international trade for its meat, pollution, and pesticide accumulation in its habitat are the major threats to this species.

Facts: To lure their prey, alligator snapping turtles have an appendage on the ends of their tongues that looks like a worm.

Amazon Milk Frog

Scientific Name: Trachycephalus resinifictrix

Found In: South America/Rain forest canopy in water-filled tree holes

Size: Males average between 2.5 and 3 inches length, while females average between 3 and 4 inches.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a variety of insects.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Deforestation due to logging and agriculture is the major threat to this species, but it supports an overall stable population

Facts: These amphibians received the name “milk frog” from the sticky white substance they secrete through their skin when threatened.

Angolan Python

Scientific Name: Python anchietae

Found In: Southern Angola to Namibia [limited to elevations between 2460 and 5250 feet above sea level]/Rocky mountain terrain and bush plains

Size: Adults average between 4 and 6 feet in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals and birds.

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species, but it supports an overall stable population as its habitat is located on protected land.

Facts: This species is considered one of the rarest snakes in Africa.

Annulated Boa

Scientific Name: Corallus annulatus

Found In: Central and South America/Rain forests with a source of fresh water

Size: Adults average between 5 and 6 feet in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small birds, bats, and rodents.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species, but it supports an overall stable population.

Facts: This species of snake is viviparous, meaning it gives birth to live young.

Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog

Scientific Name: Epipedobates anthonyi

Found In: Ecuador and Peru/Dry forests near the equator

Size: Adults average around 1 inch in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small insects.

Threat Level: Near Threatened. Pollution of the waterways from agricultural chemicals is the major threat to this species.

Facts: Males of this species demonstrate parental care, guarding the eggs in leaf litter for up to 2 weeks before they hatch.

Arboreal Alligator Lizard

Scientific Name: Abronia graminea

Found In: Mexico and Guatemala/Pine forest canopies and cloud forests at altitudes of 4,000 to 8,000 feet

Size: Adults average 9 inches in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists exclusively of insects.

Threat Level: Endangered. Deforestation for agriculture is the major threat to this species. Surviving populations are widely scattered, making it difficult for this species to recover.

Facts: People who live in this lizard’s native range believe that they are venomous and call them “escorpions de arbol” or “tree scorpions.” They are not actually venomous.

Aruba Island Rattlesnake

Scientific Name: Crotalus durissus unicolor

Found In: Aruba/Sandy, rocky, and dry hillsides

Size: Adults average 3 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of rodents, birds, and lizards.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss is the major threat to this species.

Facts: Aruba island rattlesnakes are at the top of the food chain in their habitat and lack natural predators.

Banded Rock Rattlesnake

Scientific Name: Crotalus lepidus klauberi

Found In: Southwestern United States and northern Mexico/Rock crevices and outcrops

Size: Adults typically grow up to 24 inches in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of lizards and rodents.

Threat Level: Not yet evaluated

Facts: The banded rock rattlesnake spends most of its time hiding in rock crevices, relying on its camouflage more than its rattle to protect itself from potential predators.

Barons Green Racer

Scientific Name: Philodryas baroni

Found In: Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay/In the canopy of savannas, tropical and subtropical forests

Size: Adults can grow up to 6 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of frogs, lizards, and small mammals.

Threat Level: Least concern. While populations are stable, habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are two threats to this species.

Facts: If frightened, this species can emit a foul-smelling substance to deter potential predators.

Beaded Lizard

Scientific Name: Heloderma horridum horridum

Found In: Western Mexico/Woodlands, dry forests, and scrublands

Size: Adults average between 2.5 to 3 feet in length and weigh 3 to 9 pounds.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of rodents, birds, small reptiles, amphibians, eggs, insects, and carrion.

Threat Level: Threatened. Habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species.

Facts: This species is venomous and has special grooved teeth to deliver the venom into its prey.

Black Tailed Cribo

Scientific Name: Drymarchon melanurus

Found In: Parts of Central and South America and the southern United States/Savannas, mangroves, thorn forests, and wet forested areas

Size: Adults average 6 to 8 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of anything they can overpower including frogs, fish, lizards, other snakes, birds, eggs, and rodents.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are the main threats to this species.

Facts: Another name for this species is the Middle American indigo snake because of its translucent black-blue scales.

Black Tree Monitor

Scientific Name: Varanus beccarii

Found In: Indonesia – it is only known from the Aru islands in Maluku Province Forest canopy of lowland rain forests

Size: Adults average 3 to 4 feet in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of insects, small mammals, and smaller lizards.

Threat Level: Data deficient. While there is not enough information known about this species for IUCN to determine a conservation status, major threats include the exotic pet trade and habitat loss from deforestation.

Facts: The black tree monitor has a prehensile tail that is two-thirds the size of its body and helps it to balance in the trees.

Blue Tree Monitor

Scientific Name: Varanus macraei

Found In: Indonesia (Papua)/Forested areas

Size: Adults average of 3 feet in length.

Threat Level: Endangered. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species.

Bog Turtle

Scientific Name: Glyptemys muhlenbergii

Found In: Eastern United States/Marshes and swamps away from large bodies of water

Size: Adults average 3 to 4.5 inches in length along the shell

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of insects, seeds, berries, and green vegetation.

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Habitat loss due to conversion of the marshes to farm land is the major threat to this species.

Facts: The bog turtle hibernates in mud and vegetation during the winter, usually picking its same hibernation site every year.

Bolivian Gray Titi Monkey

Scientific Name: Callicebus donacophilus

Found In: Brazil and Bolivia/In trees in the rainforest

Size: Adults average 13 inches in length

Diet: Herbivore. Their diet consists of mostly fruit, but they also eat seeds, leaves and the occasional insect in their native habitat.

Threat Level: Least Concern. However this species faces increasing pressure due to habitat loss.

Facts: Titi monkeys intertwine their tails to reinforce pair or family bonds.

Caecilian

Scientific Name: Typhlonectes natans

Found In: Northwestern Colombia/Open freshwater environments such as lakes, rivers, and marshes

Size: Adults average between 4.5 inches to 5 feet in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a variety of insects, mollusks, small snakes, frogs, lizards, and even other caecilians.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species, but the species has a stable population due to its general tolerance to habitat degradation and pollution.

Facts: Caecilians are the only amphibians to have tentacles.

Caiman Lizard

Scientific Name: Dracaena guianensis

Found In: South America/Swamps and flooded wooded areas

Size: Adults reach up to 4 feet in length and 10 pounds.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists mainly of snails, crawfish, and clams.

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species, but it supports an overall stable population.

Facts: This species was once hunted for its thick, leathery skin.

Canebrake Rattlesnake

Scientific Name: Crotalus horridus

Found In: Eastern United States/Lowland cane thickets, swamps, pine forests, mountain terrain, and around farm land

Size: Adults average between 3 and 5 feet in length and 1 to 2 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of birds, rodents, and other small mammals

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: This species hibernates in groups averaging around 50 individuals, occasionally sharing dens with other venomous and non-venomous snakes

Cantil Viper

Scientific Name: Agkistrodon bilineatus

Found In: Central America and Mexico/Lowland areas of dry forests and tropical deciduous forests, thorn forests, and savannas

Size: Adults average 30 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals

Threat Level: Near Threatened. Death from humans who fear this species is the major threat

Facts: This venomous snake can lure its prey by shaking the yellow tip of its tail, tricking frogs into thinking it is an insect

Chinese Crocodile Lizard

Scientific Name: Shinisaurus crocodilurus

Found In: Southern China and northeast Vietnam/Subtropical evergreen forests with a source of fresh water

Size: Adults range between 8 and 16 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of tadpoles, insects, dragonfly larvae, and small fish

Threat Level: Endangered. Habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species

Facts: This species is nicknamed “the lizard of great sleepiness” by local people due to its tendency to remain motionless for hours

Chinese Water Dragon

Scientific Name: Physignathus cocincinus

Found In: China and southeast Asia/Tropical rainforest hills near water sources

Size: Adults reach up to 3 feet in length

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of fish, small mammals, other reptiles, insects, and some vegetation

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: This species has a pineal “eye,” which is a photosensitive area between its eyes that helps in regulating its body temperature by detecting differences in light

Cottonmouth

Scientific Name: Agkistrodon piscivorus

Found In: Southeastern United States: from southeast Virginia down to south Florida, over to central Texas and into Missouri/Swamps, ponds, palmetto forests, marshes, dry forests, and wetlands

Size: Adults average between 2 and 4 feet in length, but can reach up to 6 feet

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of fish, reptiles, small mammals, and amphibians

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss and death from human-animal interactions are the major threats to this species

Facts: This species is the only venomous water snake in North America. The whole body of this species lays on the surface of the water; only the head of non-venomous species lays on the water surface

Crocodile Monitor

Scientific Name: Varanus salvadorii

Found In: Papua New Guinea/Rivers, swamps, lowland forests, and savannahs

Size: Adults average between 7 and 9 feet in length and up to 200 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small reptiles, mammals, carrion, and bird eggs

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: This species got its name from its flat, serrated teeth that resemble a crocodile’s teeth, rather than other monitors’ teeth, which are curved to hold prey

Eastern Kingsnake

Scientific Name: Lampropeltis getula

Found In: United States and Northern Mexico/A variety of habitats including coniferous forests, woodlands, swamps, coastal marshes, farmlands, prairies, and deserts

Size: Adults average 38 to 46 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of snakes, lizards, rodents, birds, and turtle eggs.

Threat Level: Least Concern.

Facts: This snake is resistant to the venom of pit vipers and will eat copperheads, cottonmouths, and rattlesnakes.

Emerald Tree Boa

Scientific Name: Corallus caninus

Found In: South America/Lowland rain forests near freshwater streams and lakes

Size: Adults average 6.5 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of rodents, marsupials, and lizards

Threat Level: Least Concern. Deforestation and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species, but its distribution supports an overall stable population

Facts: These boas are ambush predators that hang from branches to catch rodents passing underneath

Ethiopian Mountain Adder

Scientific Name: Bitis parviocula

Found In: Southwest Ethiopia/Mountainous forests and grasslands

Size: Adults average at 4 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of rodents

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: This species’ name, parviocula, means “small-eyed”

Eyelash Viper

Scientific Name: Atheris ceratophora

Found In: United Republic of Tanzania/Montane rain forests

Size: 15-20 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small nocturnal animals like rodents, as well as small reptiles and birds

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Major threats include habitat fragmentation due to deforestation, agriculture, and human population growth

Facts: The Usambara Eyelash Viper has retractable fangs that can fold into their connected bone for housing

Fiji Banded Iguana

Scientific Name: Brachylophus bulabula

Found In: Central Fiji/Forests

Size: Adults can reach up to 2.5 feet in length

Diet: Herbivore. Diet consists of fruits and flowers, especially hibiscus

Threat Level: Endangered. Forest burning and habitat loss due to expanding urban area and villages are the major threats to this species. Additionally, the species is commonly consumed by introduced predators

Facts: Males of this species are highly territorial and use visual displays to intimidate intruders

Frilled Dragon

Scientific Name: Chlamydosaurus kingi

Found In: Northern Australia and southern New Guinea/Dry forest habitats

Size: Adults average 33 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small insects

Threat Level: Least Concern. There is evidence of local populations decreasing, but its wide range supports an overall stable population

Facts: When extended, their neck frills can measure 12 inches across. The frills are made up of a thin layer of skin which folds around the neck like a cape. They are arboreal, or tree-dwelling, spending 90% of their time in the trees

Giant Horned Lizard

Scientific Name: Phrynosoma asio

Found In: Mexico/Savanna, dry forests, and agricultural areas

Size: Adults average 6 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of ants, termites, beetles, grasshoppers, spiders, and crickets.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Although this species is subject to pet trade, no major threats are known.

Facts: The spines on its back and sides are made from modified scales.

Gila Monster

Scientific Name: Heloderma suspectum

Found In: Mexico and the United States/Desert grasslands and occasionally oak or pine woodlands

Size: Adults can grow up to 22 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of eggs, small lizards, small mammals, frogs, and insects

Threat Level: Near threatened. Illegal trade and habitat loss are the major threats to this species

Golden Mantella

Scientific Name: Mantella aurantiaca

Found In: Madagascar/Damp, swampy areas of primary and secondary forests

Size: Adults average just under 1 inch in length

Diet: Insectivore. Diet consists of termites, flies, ants, and other invertebrates

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Major threats to this species include habitat loss due to deforestation and human expansion

Facts: The toxins in this poisonous frog come from the toxic arthropods they eat

 

Golfodulcean Dart Frog

Scientific Name: Phyllobates vittatus

Found In: Southwestern Costa Rica/Terrestrial, freshwater streams in lowland forests

Size: Adults average just over 1 inch in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small invertebrates..

Threat Level: Endangered. Habitat loss and water pollution are the major threats to this species.

Facts: Male Golfodulcean dart frogs care for the eggs, which are laid on leaves. Several days to a week after the tadpoles hatch, the male will return and allow tadpoles to climb onto his back, transporting them to a water source.

Goliath Birdeater

Scientific Name: Theraphosa blondi

Found In: Suriname, Guyana, northern Brazil and southern Venezuela/Upland rain forests, marshes, and swamps

Size: Goliath birdeaters are the heaviest spiders in the world. They weigh up to 6 ounces and have a leg span of up to 11 inches

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists mostly of earthworms, and occasionally small rodents, amphibians, and reptiles, despite the name “birdeater”

Threat Level: Not Evaluated. Habitat loss, the exotic pet trade, and hunting are the major threats to this species

Facts: Like other tarantulas, the Goliath birdeater’s body is covered with stinging hairs that the tarantula can release to irritate the skin and mucous membranes of predators. Their fangs are large enough to pierce the skin of a human, but their venom is about as strong as a wasp’s

Gray’s Monitor Lizard 

Scientific Name: Varanus olivaceus

Found In: Philippines/Tropical rain forests with rocky outcrops

Size: Adults can reach up to 6 feet in length and 20 pounds

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of fruit; however, they will eat snails and crabs in their juvenile stage, and to supplement their diet if fruit is not available as an adult

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss due to agriculture and logging is the major threat to this species

Facts: This species was considered extinct for over 150 years until documented observations in the 1980s

Green and Black Dart Frog

Scientific nameDendrobates auratus

Found In: Central and South America/Rainforests with a permanent source of fresh water; some dart frogs live in lead litter, while other species live high in the canopy

Size: Adults average between 0.4 and 2.4 inches depending on the species

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a combination of termites, beetles, centipedes, and ants.

Threat Level: Varies by species. Habitat loss, chytrid fungus, and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to dart frog populations.

Facts: The poison of a golden dart frog was used by the Choco people of Colombia to treat darts, which is where dart frogs get their name. One golden dart frog produces enough poison at once to kill 10 humans, and that poison can remain active on an object for up to a year.

Green Mantella

Scientific Name: Mantella viridis

Found In: Madagascar/Deciduous dry forests near brooks or streams

Size: Adults average just under 1 inch in length

Diet: Insectivore. Diet consists of flies and other arthropods

Threat Level: Endangered. The exotic pet trade and habitat loss from logging are the major threats to this species

Facts: The green mantella’s call is actually two very short clicks, totaling only 30 milliseconds

Green Tree Monitor

Scientific Name: Varanus prasinus

Found In: Australia, Indonesia, and New Guinea Palm/Forests, mangrove swamps, and cacao plantations

Size: Adults average at 3 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a variety of insects. However, they can also consume small amphibians, lizards, birds, and mammals

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species

Facts: Females of this species will sometimes lay their eggs in termite mounds, as the temperature and moisture conditions are ideal for incubation

Green Tree Python

Scientific Name: Morelia viridis

Found In: Australia, New Guinea, and on the small islands that surround New Guinea/Lowland tropical rain forests

Size: Adults average between 5 and 7 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals, reptiles, birds, and invertebrates

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species, but its wide distribution supports an overall stable population

Facts: Green tree pythons are not green when they hatch: they are brick-red or bright yellow. They develop their green color after six months to a year

Henkel’s Leaf-Tailed Gecko

Scientific Name: Uroplatus henkeli

Found In: Madagascar/Dry deciduous forests to low-altitude rain forest

Size: Adults average 11 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a variety of insects

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss due to agriculture and logging and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species

Facts: This species can let out a loud distress call that resembles a child’s scream

Hermann’s Tortoise

Scientific Name: Testudo hermanni

Found In: Southern Europe/Evergreen Mediterranean oak forests and maritime grasslands

Size: Adults average 5-7 inches in length

Diet: Herbivore. Diet consists of various plants

Threat Level: Near Threatened. Pollution from chemicals used in agriculture, the exotic pet trade, and habitat loss are the major threats to this species

Facts: The temperature at which the eggs are hatched determines the gender of the hatchlings. 26 degrees Celsius results in male hatchlings while 30 degrees Celsius results in female hatchlings

Iranian Newt

Scientific Name: Neurergus kaiseri

Found In: Four streams within the southern Zargos Mountains of Lorestan, Iran/Streams, springs, and waterfalls

Size: Adults average at 5 inches in length

Diet: The specific diet is unknown. They are likely to consume invertebrates that live in their freshwater environment

Threat Level: Vulnerable. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species

Facts: This species is the first example of a species granted international protection due to e-commerce. It was granted protection under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species due to the online sale of this species, which was endangering the population

Jamaican Boa

Scientific Name: Epicrates subflavus

Found In: Jamaica/Forest habitats

Size: Adults average between 5 and 7.5 feet in length and 11 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of bats, birds, and rodents. Juveniles feed on lizards and frogs

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss is the major threat to this species

Jamaican Iguana

Scientific Name: Cyclura collei

Found In: Hellshire Hills of Jamaica (southern Jamaica)/Limestone outcroppings and tropical dry forests

Size: Adults average between 15 and 17 inches in length and 20 pounds

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of primarily plants, flowers, and other vegetation, but they have also been known to eat carrion and insects

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Predation, deforestation, and habitat loss are the major threats to this species

Facts: This species is Jamaica’s largest native land animal

Jeweled Lacerta

Scientific Name: Timon lepidus

Found In: Southwestern Europe – Portugal, Spain, and parts of France and Italy/Open and dry woodlands, scrub land, olive groves, meadows, and sandy or rocky sites

Size: Adults average 1 to 2 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of beetles, birds’ eggs, reptiles, frogs, and small mammals

Threat Level: Near Threatened. Pesticide pollution, habitat loss and poisoning are major threats for this species

Facts: Although this is now a protected species in Spain, it used to be harvested for a traditional cuisine in the country.

King Cobra

Scientific Name: Ophiophagus hannah

Found In: Southeast Asia/Rain forests and plains

Size: Adults average between 10 and 12 feet, but can reach up to 18 feet and up to 20 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of other snakes, lizards, small mammals, and eggs

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss and death from human-animal interactions are the major threats to this species

Facts: The neurotoxin in a single bite from this species is enough to kill 20 humans or even an elephant

Virginia Zoo cobra: female Clarice

Lemur Leaf Frog

Scientific Name: Agalychnis lemur

Found In: Colombia, Costa Rica, and Panama/Humid lowlands and primary forest

Size: Adult males average 1 to 1.5 inches while adult females are larger, averaging 1.5 to 2 inches

Diet: Insectivore. Diet consists of insects and other small invertebrates

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Habitat loss from deforestation and disease caused by infection from chytrid fungus are the major threats to this species

Facts: This species is important for human medical research. Various peptides secreted from their skin have potential anti-diabetes, bacterial, and anti-cancer agents that have not yet been studied in depth

Lined Seahorse

Scientific Name: Hippocampus erectus

Found In: From Brazil up to Nova Scotia/Aquatic habitats to 330 feet deep, usually associated with aquatic vegetation such as mangroves or coral, rocky, or oyster reefs

Size: Adults average 2 to 7 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small crustaceans, mollusks, and zoo plankton

Threat Level: Vulnerable. The exotic pet/aquarium trade, shrimp fishing, and exploitation for traditional medicinal practices are the major threats to this species

Facts: Lined seahorses greet their partners each morning with a dance to enforce their monogamous bond

Two-Toed Sloth

Scientific Name: Choloepus didactylus, Choloepus hoffmanni

Found In: Central and South America/Tropical moist lowland and montane forest

Size: Adults average 18 to 33 inches in length and 9 to 19 pounds in weight

Diet: Herbivore. Diet in their native habitat consists of primarily berries, leaves, small twigs, and fruits; although, they have been known to eat insects or small prey on occasion.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Sloths face increasing pressure due to habitat loss and fragmentation.

Facts: Sloths are made to live upside down and are physically incapable of walking; they crawl when on the ground, but are good swimmers.

Madagascar Hissing Cockroach

Scientific Name: Gromphadorhina portentosa

Found In: Madagascar/Forest floor of tropical lowland forests

Size: Adults average 2 to 4 inches in length

Diet: Detritivore. Diet consists of decaying plant matter and animal carcasses

Threat Level: Not yet evaluated

Facts: Females lay an egg sack consisting of 15 to 40 cockroach nymphs which is then sucked up inside of her until the nymphs hatch, giving the appearance of live birth

Mangrove Snake

Scientific Name: Boiga dendrophila

Found In: Southeast Asia/Lowland rainforests

Size: Adults average 6 to 8 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of reptiles, birds, and small mammals

Threat Level: Not yet evaluated

Facts: Another name for this species is the gold-ringed cat snake because of the vertical slits in its large eyes and yellow rings on their bodies

Mangshan Pit Viper

Scientific Name: Protobothrops mangshanensis

Found In: Mangshan mountains in Hunan, China/Subtropical forests

Size: Adults reach up to 7 feet in length and weigh up to 6.5 to 11 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of birds and rodents

Threat Level: Endangered. The exotic pet trade is the major threat for this species.

Facts: This species is thought to be the only non-cobra that can spit venom.

Mata Mata

Scientific Name: Chelus fimbriata

Found In: South America/Tropical river systems, particularly ox-bow lakes, ponds, and creeks that are slow-moving with soft, muddy bottoms

Size: The carapace (top shell) of adults averages at 1.5 feet in length and 33 pounds

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of fish and aquatic invertebrates

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species

Facts: The skin flaps and other protusions on the head of this species aid in detecting vibrations in the water to catch prey and avoid predators.

McCord’s Box Turtle

Scientific Name: Cuora mccordi

Found In: China/Mountain streams

Size: Adults average 5 to 6 inches in length along the shell

Diet: Carnivore

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Exploitation in Asia for its meat and traditional medicinal practices are the major threats to this species

Facts: The McCord’s Box Turtle is essential for conservation since it is thought to be extinct in its natural habitats

Mint Dart Frog

Scientific Name: Phyllobates terribilis ‘mint’

Found In: Found in the rainforests of Colombia

Size: Adults can reach up to 2 inches long

Diet: Insectivore. Diet consists of fruit flies and larger arthropods

Threat Level: Varies by species. Habitat loss, chytrid fungus, and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to dart frog populations.

Facts: It is theorized that the colors of dart frogs function as a visual warning to scare off predators.

Monkey-Tailed Skink

Scientific Name: Corucia zebrata

Found In: Solomon Islands/Tropical Rainforests

Size: Adults can reach 32 inches in length

Diet: Herbivore. Diet consists of leaves, flowers, fruit, and shoots.

Threat Level: Not Evaluated. Deforestation for logging is the major threat to this species. Its small range and low birth rate make it vulnerable to rapid population decline.

Facts: Adult skinks have been known to “adopt” orphaned young skinks into their groups. Typically one baby every other year

New Caledonian Giant Gecko

Scientific Name: Rhacodactylus leachinanus

Found In: Only found in New Caledonia/Humid forests along the coast and in the mountains

Size: It is the largest living gecko in the world, averaging between 8 and 14 inches in length.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of insects, spiders, small vertebrates, fruit, nectar, and sap.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss, the exotic pet trade, and invasive species are the major threats to this species.

Facts: This gecko can make a loud growling noise, and local people call it “the devil in the trees.”

Peruvian Red Tail Boa

Scientific Name: Boa constrictor ortonii

Found In: South America/Dry woodlands and mountainous regions

Size: Adults average at 9 feet in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals, birds, and large lizards.

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Panamanian Golden Frog

Scientific Name: Atelopus zeteki

Found In: Panama/Tropical montane forests

Size: Adults average 1 to 1.5 inches in length.

Diet: Carnivore.

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Habitat loss caused by deforestation and disease caused by chytrid fungus are the major threats to this species.

Facts: The male’s call can be heard from 50 meters away.

Plumed Basilisk

Scientific Name: Basiliscus plumifrons

Found In: Central America/Lowland and wet forests

Size: Adults average 20-21 inches in length

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of arthropods, small lizards, snakes, birds, mammals, fishes, freshwater shrimps, frogs, flowers, and fruits.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss is the major threat to this species.

Facts: This species is semi-aquatic and semi-arboreal meaning it can live in water and trees.

Red Bamboo Racer

Scientific Name: Oreocryptophis porphyraceus

Found In: Southeast Asia/Evergreen rain forests, monsoon forests, and other moist, cool habitats, often at high altitudes

Size: Adult females average 35-40 inches in length while males average 30 inches in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists mostly of rodents and occasionally other small mammals or frogs.

Threat Level: Not Evaluated. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species, but it is bred easily in captivity.

Facts: Red bamboo racers are fossorial snakes, meaning they live underground and burrow under leaf litter, rocks, and logs to avoid direct sunlight. They are crepuscular, meaning they are most active in the morning and late afternoon when the sun is least intense.

Red Pygmy Rattlesnake

Scientific Name: Sistrurus miliarius

Found In: United States/Wet prairies, wet savannas, and swamps

Size: Average of 12-24 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals, lizards, birds, insects, frogs, and other snakes.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss and fungal disease are the major threats to this species.

Facts: Since the red pygmy rattlesnake is so small, its rattle sounds more like an insect’s buzzing.

Red-Eyed Tree Frog

Scientific Name: Litoria chloris

Found In: Eastern Australia/Coastal rain forests, flooded grasslands, and transitional habitat

Size: Males average between 2.2 and 2.4 inches in length, and females average between 2.3 and 2.7 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Scientists do not know a lot about its feeding habits because this animal’s habitat is difficult to access for observation, but they believe these frogs consume insects

Threat Level: Least Concern. Habitat loss is a threat to localized populations, but their wide range and distribution supports an overall stable population.

Facts: These frogs make a series of long “aaa-rk” sounds followed by a chirp or trill.

Reticulated Python

Scientific Name: Python reticulatus

Found In: Southeast Asia/Tropical rain forests, wetlands, and grasslands

Size: Males average 15 feet in length and 100 pounds, while females can grow up to 20 feet and 200 pounds.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals and occasionally birds.
Conservation Status: Not Evaluated

Facts: This species warms its eggs through muscle contractions called “shivering thermogenesis,” which causes a faster incubation and increased chance of survival.

Rhinoceros Viper

Scientific Name: Bitis nasicornis

Found In: West and central Africa/Tropical and swaps

Size: Adults average between 2 and 3 feet

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of small mammals, amphibians, and fish.

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade and capture for resources (skin and venom) are the major threats to this species. Despite this, it is very common and has no decline in numbers.

Facts: This species’ venom is one type of snake venom used to produce SAIMR polyvalent antivenom, which is used to treat certain venomous snake bites.

Roti Island Snake-necked Turtle

Scientific Name: Chelodina mccordi

Found In: Indonesia – specifically Roti Island/Terrestrial freshwater

Size: Adults average 7 to 9 inches in the length of their shell.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of amphibians, fish, carrion, insects, mollusks, marine worms, and algae.

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species.

Facts: Roti Island snake-necked turtles can produce a foul smelling musk to discourage predators.

Sailfin Dragon

Scientific Name: Hydrosaurus pustulatus

Found In: Philippines/Moist lowland tropical forests and open agricultural areas

Size: Adults reach up to 3 feet in length.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of fruits, leaves, and insects.

Threat Level: Vulnerable. Habitat loss and the exotic pet trade are the major threats to this species.

Facts: This flat toes of this species enable it to run across water.

Siamese Crocodile

Scientific Name: Crocodylus siamensis

Found In: Southeast Asia/Slow moving rivers, streams, marshes, and swamps

Size: Adults can grow up to 9 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of fish, small mammals, and invertebrates.

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. This species is still recovering from commercial hunting for their skins in the twentieth century. Illegal collection of their eggs, habitat loss, and drowning in fishing gear are the major threats to this species.

Facts: The Siamese crocodile is currently the most endangered species of crocodile.

Smallwoods Anole

Scientific Name: Anolis smallwoodi

Found In: Cuba/Forest habitats

Size: Adults can reach an average of 19 inches in length.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of invertebrates and plant material.

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: Males have throat flaps that they will flash at other anoles to establish territories.

Solomon Island Leaf Frog

Scientific Name: Ceratobatrachus guentheri

Found In: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands/Rain forests, secondary forests, and rural gardens

Size: Adults average between 3 to 4 inches in length; the females are larger than the males.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of insects, small amphibians, and reptiles.

Threat Level: Least Concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species, but it supports an overall stable population.

Facts: Solomon Island leaf frogs do not have a free-swimming tadpole stage. The frogs go through the full process of metamorphosis inside of the egg and emerge from the eggs as fully-developed froglets.

Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake

Scientific Name: Crotalus mitchellii

Found In: Mexico and the United States/Canyons, foothills, and rocky desert areas

Size: Adults can grow up to 4 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of mice, lizards, birds, and small mammals

Threat Level: Least Concern. There are no known major threats to this species.

Facts: The speckled rattlesnake, like other pit vipers, has heat sensing pits along the front of its face so it can detect warm blooded mammals.

Splendid Tree Frog

Scientific Name: Litoria splendida

Found In: Australia/Moist forest, with eggs laid in terrestrial freshwater

Size: Adults average 4 inches in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of flies, crickets, grasshoppers, and other invertebrates.

Threat Level: Least concern. There are no known threats to this species.

Facts: Females lay up to 6,500 individual eggs that sink to the bottom of pools.

Strawberry Poison-dart Frog

Scientific Name: Oophaga pumilio

Found In: Central America/Humid lowlands, premontane forests, cacao plantations, and abandoned forest clearings

Size: Adults average just under 1 inch in length

Diet: Insectivores. Diet consists of arthropods such as ants.

Threat Level: Least concern. The exotic pet trade is the major threat to this species.

Facts: The poison in the skin of the strawberry dart frog comes from the toxins it accumulates from its prey.

Surinam Toad

Scientific Name: Pipa pipa

Found In: Central and South America and southern Caribbean islands/Slow moving streams, ponds, and pools in tropical rainforests

Size: Adults average 4 to 6 inches in length.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of worms, insects, crustaceans, and small fish.

Threat Level: Least concern. Habitat loss is the major threat to this species.

Facts: The Surinam toad lays flat on the pond surface, never bringing its legs under its body like most toads, and spoons small fish and invertebrates into its mouth with its fingers as they swim by.

Tentacled Snake

Scientific Name: Erpeton tentaculatum

Found In: Thailand and southern Vietnam/Still or slow-moving bodies of water with growing vegetation

Size: Adults average between 20 and 35 inches in length.

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of freshwater fish.

Threat Level: Least Concern. Local harvest is the major threat to this species, but it supports an overall stable population.

Facts: This species herds prey into its mouth by creating waves through its body movements, causing prey to change course.

Timor Python

Scientific Name: Python timoriensis

Found In: Southeastern islands of Indonesia/Grasslands and open forests

Size: Adults average between 5 and 8 feet in length and weigh up to 20 pounds.

Diet: Carnivores. Diet consists of rodents, birds, and small reptiles.

Threat Level: Not Evaluated

Facts: Despite their name, this species has never been seen on the island of Timor.

Tokay Gecko

Scientific Name: Gekko gecko

Found In: Southeast Asia; invasive in the Florida Keys/Trees and cliffs in the rainforest

Size: Adults average 7-19 inches in length

Diet: Insectivore. Diet consists of insects such as crickets.

Threat Level: Not evaluated. This species is threatened by poaching for the medicinal trade although there is no scientific evidence that any parts of it have healing properties.

Facts: The Tokay Gecko’s mating call sounds like “tokken” or “geck-geck”, which is how they got both their scientific and common name.

Utila Island Iguana

Scientific Name: Ctenosaura bakeri

Found In: Island of Utila, Honduras/Mangrove forests and beaches

Size: Males average 30 inches in length, while females average 22 inches.

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of fruits, flowers, leaves, and small invertebrates.

Threat Level: Critically Endangered. Habitat loss due to deforestation and the tourist industry is the major threat to this species. Additionally, the species and its eggs are commonly consumed by native carnivores and even humans.

Facts: This species incubates its eggs in the sun by laying them in nests built on beaches.

White-faced Saki Monkey

Scientific Name: Pithecia pithecia

Found In: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela/Tropical rainforests

Size: Adult males average 11 to 15 inches and 4 to 5 pounds, while females are slightly smaller

Diet: Omnivore. Diet consists of mainly fruit, but they will also consume flowers, birds, bats, and small mammals in their native habitat.

Threat Level: Least Concern. However, this species faces increasing pressure from habitat loss.

Facts: These monkeys can leap between branches rapidly, which has earned them the nickname of “flying monkeys”. Despite their name, only the males develop white faces as they mature.

Yellow Tree Monitor

Scientific Name: Varanus reisingeri

Found In: Indonesia and New Guinea/Little information available; closely related to the Green Tree Monitor, which can be found in a variety if arboreal forest locales

Size: Adults average between 2 ad 3 feet in length

Diet: Carnivore. Diet consists of a variety of insects and occasionally small mammals.

Threat Level: Data Deficient